Typically, these two landscape positions are significantly different from the standpoint of groundwater considerations. The 17 new monitoring wells are arranged in five clusters of three wells each and have been sampled during the Phase II monitoring period. Lagooning or landfilling was practiced depending upon the solids content of the disposed material. Bottom ash to unlined and lined Interim ponds and then to the same landfill. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia This limitation should be overcome in the remainder of the project by the increased number of site-specific estimates that will be used to adjust the cost curves developed from idealized designs. Collectively, the backup sites provide the capability to measure effects if some of the candidates are found unsuitable.

This project, therefore, will include a comparison of the relative waste disposal costs. Similarly, use of coal in western plants is likely to grow. Regional costs were estimated by summing the disposal costs for all plants within a given Federal Energy Regula- tory Commission FERC Region and making appropriate adjustments based on projected modifications to current practice. The site-specific costs were then integrated into the equations based on the idealized designs to adjust the mathematical cost models to include various regional and site-specific factors. The basis for the preliminary test plans and their finalization under Task II will be an evaluation of existing information and data relating principally to: The bituminous- coal fly ash has a higher silica Si02 content, a higher iron content, and lower contents of calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Placement of the wastes in mine pits prior to backfilling the pits with overburden is a common method for disposal of these wastes at power plants located adjacent to surface coal mines.

The results of the FGD gypsum stacking demonstration indicate that this oxi- dized FGD sludge has settling, dewatering, and structured characteristics similar to, and in some cases, superior to phosphate gypsum, making this a seriew option for disposal. Since the rubber-tired dozers and trucks were prone to sink into the waste, even after several weeks of exposure, a 1 to 2-ft 30 to 60 cm layer ravensswood mine spoil was required on top of each layer before driving on the waste.

Mitchell Station E. During the testing at Plant Scholz efforts were made to construct and operate the stack as typically done in the phosphate fertilizer industry. Additional effort is also anticipated by EPA itself in providing the comprehensive information required by this bill. With this overall understanding, the candidate and backup sites described’in the Site Selection Report were recommended for further consideration.

Very 1xx4 coal combustion wastes would fail this criteria. The overall approach has been to define uniform procedures to sdries capital and operating costs on the same basis for different disposal opera- tions constructed at different times in different parts of the country. Today, the objectives of the study go well beyond RCRA and are aimed at examining the range of impacts that derive from RCRA and its interactions with a host of other ravenxwood regulations, which will have an inter- facing influence on RCRA.


Pilot and Full-Scale Designs E. The elemental composition of fly ash produced at the Milton R.

Environmentally safe disposal of fly ash and FGD waste in surface mine pits will require careful site selection and selective placement of wastes and the various overburden materials. The Advisory Committee and the Technology Seris are reviewing all major documentation on this project.

The ravenswkod concentrations always increased to approximately the same levels in the first few pore volumes, seriee of influent chemistry. These high concentrations occurred for both types of elutriation solutions, the groundwater. To establish this communication, the following steps have been taken: Personal communication to John Peirson of Arthur D.

It should be noted that the six case study sites do not necessarily represent 1x statistically valid sampling for estimation of regional or national cost impacts. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.

These cost differences appeared to be of sufficient magnitude to affect the rates of commercialization of various competing technologies. Battelle Phase II activities involve additional modeling work to develop a model users guide for generic application.

A major factor affecting the total quantity of solid waste disposed was the amount of coal combustion by-products recovered for other uses. Fourteen columns were used, ravenswkod with a different type of leaching fluid as follows: Preliminary Findings and Conclusions The data and numerical impacts which are summarized below come from the November Interim Report on the Utility Sector.

SmjeĊĦtaj East Grinstead

It should be noted that although elemental compositions of fly ash and FGD waste provide a useful means for comparison of these wastes, they do not indicate how zoje wastes will influence the chemical composition of water brought into contact with the wastes. These were applied as the first-level screens.

Specifically, the data from Task II will be assessed in three categories: Figure 2 shows the field study area, waste disposal site active mining arealocation of groundwater instrumentation in unmined areas adjacent to the disposal sites, and the location of the hydrostratigraphic cross section shown in Figure 3. Imple- mentation of such changeovers is likely to be zome least 1 or 2 years or more in the future.

Table 3 shows the range of results from the five samples and compares them to the Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards. The tests conducted the seies sludge and the methods used shown in parentheses are as follows: The first step has been completed and a draft report has been submitted 8.


Before explaining the actual cost and impact estimating methodology, it is interesting to note some of the DOE observations made on the National Gover- nors’ Association State Survey, and on data acquired from State Offices of Solid Ravensqood. The hydrologic units of major interest in the waste disposal area include the spoil materials and unmined units below the base of the spoils.

The calcium concentration typically showed a slow decrease from 10 to 50 pore volumes. The FGD waste also commonly shows extensive cracking after short periods of exposure zine disposal areas. In the laboratory, a chunk of this exposed waste slaked in a few minutes when immersed in water.

Proceedings: Symposium on Flue Gas Desulfurization – Houston, October Volume 2

High permeability affects greater speed in dewatering and ease sseries handling which is important in constructing the containment dikes. These committees will review and comment on the project as it proceeds and serve as a mechanism for the exchange of ideas, concerns, and, where appropriate, data. Figure 9 illustrates a typical computation of regional disposal costs.

Toxic metal and non-metal concentrations are generally not significantly in excess of drinking water standards. The calcium concentrations in all the columns attained approximately the same levels in the first few pore volumes, regardless of influent chemistry. Summation of regional impacts provided an estimate of national cost impacts.

Preliminary national costs for waste disposal, based on direct costs ravenswiod, reflected an increase in disposal costs of over “4 times” for non-hazardous and over “13 times” for hazardous disposal. Trace elements such as arsenic, chromium and selenium are also present within the process water at concentrations above the primary drinking water standards and could pose a potential problem.

Photograph of Center Mine showing typical V-notch and pit- bottom disposal areas. Based on the USWAG estimates, and assuming a solids content of 25 percent, the generation rates for these wastes were estimated to beto 1, tons inand are projected to increase to the range ofto 2, tons per year by While these recommendations will certainly reflect the knowledge gained from the studies at each site, recommendations will be made which are as broadly applicable as possible.

The crust protect the slopes from erosion during rainfall and eliminate any dusting problem.

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