In other schools, the shrines are dedicated to different deities and, naturally, the worship varies greatly in form and scope — depending not only on the form of worship to each deity, but also on the personal inclinations of the teachers and students. The material collected focuses mainly upon: If a student needs to stand up to go to the bathroom or to get a drink, he does this with consent of the guru. Additionally, as Doniger has remarked: This focus on the transmission of knowledge through an oral system, which is devoid of explicit written instructions, has been repeatedly drawn to our attention by previous scholarship. During the class, the teacher sits quietly and corrects the students when they make a mistake in pronunciation or recite the incorrect note of the mantra. Changes in the Transmission of Vedic Identity and Tradition 6.

They have noted that the prosperous emerging middle classes have embraced popular forms of Hinduism centered on temples, pilgrimages, popular saints, or male and female gurus. Similarly, one finds evidence for different kinds of scribes who had different tasks: The empire was finally weakened only by a decisive defeat in at Panipat 80 km. Other interruptions in study may be the observance of Hindu holidays on which particular rites are followed. This ritual market is influenced by the laws of supply and demand, in which the client who sponsors the ritual — knowingly or unknowingly — dictates what is authentic for the tradition and what is not. Staal a, b; Falk , The students will help in the menial chores of the household and will take care of their own belongings. In India, there are many people who opened their homes to me and made me feel like one of them.

Scribes 481 paid to produce a certain number of copies of a text that were often used as diplomatic tools. The verbatim transmission of this knowledge from teacher to disciple — in its current cultural setting as observed in traditional Vedic schools in Maharashtra, India — is the topic of this book. The vast amount of scholarship on Indian manuscripts and the discipline of codicology have been of paramount importance within Indology.

In a similar argument, Robertson distinguishes between direct and indirect representation. Due to the different time zones between the U. Log In Sign Up.

General Contexts What does it imply, to study the transmission of the Veda in contemporary Maharashtra? As we saw above in the examinations conducted in several institutions, greater mobility has slowly begun to blur the regional variations.


When the annual course of study is commenced and concluded, the suspension is in effect on that day, as well as on the preceding and following days. Wrongly learned material without assistance leads to more effort and time from the part of both, students and teachers. The senior student corrects them in the exact same way the guru would do it by saying the word in an emphatic tone, with the right way of recitation or by queing the student with the first two or three words if the student has failed to remember.

One should therefore not overlook the fact that the oral transmission of the Vedas plays a key role in the preservation of the Vedic tradition. At these sessions, women typically outnumber the few and mostly retired men. This is generally looked upon as a specialization, and usually happens after their mastery of basic recitation skills in regard to the above-mentioned texts.

In India, there are many people who opened their homes to me and made me feel like one of them.

Ghaisas Pune2. The time spent at each school varied from consisting of day trips to entailing several weeks at a single locality. Other relevant studies on the subject are well summarized in Hiltebeitel Nonetheless, as will be shown below, formal examinations have increasingly become a crucial element in the education of the vaidikas of Maharashtra in recent years.

While attitudes towards women working outside the domestic environment have begun to change, orthodox families are still inclined towards having women remain at home after marriage.

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We get only those students who cannot go to regular schools. States in the south, but also in Maharashtra, are highly contentious about promoting English as a prerequisite for government jobs, and also as the required language of instruction for university study.

This often has to do with the different tasks and responsibilities which students have in addition to their studies we will come to these later. Nonetheless, this still leaves open the question of what exact is the interaction between orality, as the exclusive transmission of form, and the transmission of content. The students will help in the menial chores of the household and will take care of their own belongings.

Hillebrandt ; Dumont The external student came from a Vedic school in Tamil Nadu, who at the time had a day vacation, which he spent with his family in Mumbai. But most of these rules became obsolete in the course of time, and those mentioned in the passage above were not observed during my fieldwork, particularly those concerning meteorological circumstances. Thus, training in writing was often undertaken with a stick in the sand or on a dusty floor, or with aghihotra on a hot stone.


Traditional Marathi education began with elementary studies of arithmetic, reading and writing. This attitude can be illustrated with an anecdote told to me by Prof. The influence of these movements on contemporary Hinduism may be larger than scholars have heretofore recognized. After making an ancestral offering, the suspension lasts until the same time the next day, as also when uncooked food is distributed at an ancestral offering.

An introduction episoee these matters can be found in J.

To inform and educate the general public about the Vedic heritage, tradition and way of life. In this exercise, the dynamics of the recitation are different. Over time, longer and 4418 portions are strung together and committed to memory.

Akbar, through incessant warfare, was able to annex all of northern and part of episore India. In these cases, not only is the amount of time spent in formal teaching reduced, but also, as we will see later in Chapter 5, the quantity of time spent with the guru outside the formal study of the Veda is also reduced.

Map of Maharashtra with the localities of the schools. When the student has concluded the ritual, they come to sit for lunch.

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Redfield and Singer Only the actual agnijotra used agnihotta the ritual are considered necessary. In most cases, the teachers also have other responsibilities that require their attention. In practice, many of these schools do not send their students every year to the examinations, as students sometimes need longer or shorter amounts of time to learn the given curriculum. They are also used to seat guests, and they serve as seats for other activities, such as eating lunch.

The book is divided into two main sections:

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